PDF Output

PDF output is a standard function of AH Formatter V7.1. The PDF versions that can be output are as follows:

  • PDF1.3
    PDF1.3 can be browsed by Adobe Acrobat (Reader) 4.0 or later.
  • PDF1.4
    PDF1.4 can be browsed by Adobe Acrobat (Reader) 5.0 or later.
  • PDF1.5
    PDF1.5 can be browsed by Adobe Acrobat (Reader) 6.0 or later.
  • PDF1.6
    PDF1.6 can be browsed by Adobe Acrobat (Reader) 7.0 or later.
  • PDF1.7
    PDF1.7 can be browsed by Adobe Acrobat (Reader) 8.0 or later.
  • PDF2.0
    Possible to output PDF2.0 that conforms to ISO 32000-2:2017 with AH Formatter V7.1.
  • PDF/X no-LT
    Possible to output PDF/X with AH Formatter V7.1.
  • PDF/A no-LT
    Possible to output PDF/A with AH Formatter V7.1.
  • PDF/UA no-LT
    Possible to output PDF/UA with AH Formatter V7.1.

AH Formatter V7.1 outputs PDFs with the following features:

  • By setting extended properties inside the original document, bookmarks and links can be created.  Bookmark and Link
  • Possible to output PDF in multiple separate volume from one FO. no-LT  Multiple Separate Volume
  • By setting extended properties inside the original document, the meta information, such as “Title”, “Subject”, “Author”, and “Keyword” information, display action when opening documents or page layout can be set.  Document Information
  • When setting the security, 40-bit RC4, 128-bit RC4, 128-bit AES and 256-bit AES can be applied to the encryption. Available encryptions may differ depending on the PDF versions.  PDF Output Settings, PDF Option Setting Dialog
  • Possible to output Tagged PDF. no-LT
  • Possible to output Linearized PDF no-LT

For more details, see also PDF Output Settings.

PDF/X no-LT

PDF/X is defined in ISO 15930 and is a subset of PDF that aims to exchange the data for printing. Basically all the information for printing is included in the PDF file. AH Formatter V7.1 is available for outputting the following version of PDF/X. It's impossible to output PDF/X with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

  • PDF/X-1a:2001 (ISO 15930-1:2001)
    It's a specification based on PDF1.3.
  • PDF/X-3:2002 (ISO 15930-3:2002)
    It's a specification based on PDF1.3.
  • PDF/X-1a:2003 (ISO 15930-4:2003)
    It's a specification based on PDF1.4 and a subset of PDF/X-3:2003.
  • PDF/X-2:2003 (ISO 15930-5:2003)
    It's a specification based on PDF1.4 and a superset of PDF/X-3:2003.
  • PDF/X-3:2003 (ISO 15930-6:2003)
    It's a specification based on PDF1.4.
  • PDF/X-4:2010, PDF/X-4p:2010 (ISO 15930-7:2010)
    It's a specification based on PDF1.6.

The following shows the main features for PDF/X.

PDF/X-1aPDF/X-2PDF/X-3PDF/X-4PDF/X-4p
All fonts must be embeddedyesyesyesyesyes
The output intent must be specifiedyesyesyesyesyes
ICC profiles specified as the output intent must be embedded nononoyesno
Supports CMYK, Spot coloryesyesyesyesyes
Supports Grayscaleyesyesyesyesyes
Supports RGBnoyesyesyesyes
Supports transparencynononoyesyes
Supports PDFs with encryption; setting of password, the restriction for printing and the restriction for changing must not be donenonononono
PDF may contain links or annotations, etc. in the print areanonononono
PDF may contain elements that include actions such as bookmarks, etc. nonononono

In PDF/X, all fonts must be embedded. When the font that is not allowed to embed is used, PDF/X cannot be generated.

PDF/X adopts the appropriate information by ignoring the most of the information set by users, such as font embedding, etc. For example the version of the output PDF is specified to PDF/X, Font Embedding in the PDF Option Setting Dialog will be displayed in gray color.

When an image incompatible as PDF/X is specified, the processing changes depending on error-on-pdfx-fault specified in PDF Output Settings. See also error-on-pdfx-fault.

In PDF/X, the output intent must be specified. There are two ways to specify the output intent. One is to directly specify the ICC profile and the other one is to specify the output condition identifier.

In order to specify the output intent by ICC profile, use the URL of the ICC profile to the src property for <fo:color-profile>. In this case, omit the color-profile-name property or specify "#CMYK", "#GrayScale" or "#RGB". If this property is omitted, it is considered to be "#CMYK". For example:

<fo:declarations>
 <fo:color-profile
  src="url('file:///C:/​WINDOWS/​system32/​spool/​drivers/​color/​JapanColor2001Coated.icc#OutputConditionIdentifier=JC200103')"
  color-profile-name="#CMYK"
 />
</fo:declarations>

In HTML, you can specify as follows by using <meta name="color-profile">: V7.1 no-LT

<meta
 name="color-profile"
 content="src='file:///C:/​WINDOWS/​system32/​spool/​drivers/​color/​JapanColor2001Coated.icc#OutputConditionIdentifier=JC200103' name='#CMYK'"
/>

In PDF/X, the output intent which can be specified is only one. When multiple output intents are specified, it is indeterminate which one is adopted.

In PDF/X, the only ICC profile of the output intent which can be embedded is the one whose device class is “prtr”. Any ICC profiles other than “prtr” cannot be used. Specifying an ICC profile other than “prtr” will report the following error:

6908 (420C): PDF output warning. Unsupported ICC Profile Device Class : mntr: Xxxxxxxx.icc

With PDF/X-1 to PDF/X-3, the output condition identifier can also be specified with the src property of <fo:color-profile>. The setting is done in the form of the fragmentation of URI. For example:

<fo:declarations>
 <fo:color-profile
  src="#OutputConditionIdentifier=CGATS%20TR%20001&amp;RegistryName=http://www.color.org"
 />
</fo:declarations>

The first character must be “#”. After that, the parameters are lined and separated by &amp;. Each parameter is in the form of name=value. The name of the parameters are as follows (by mapping to the items of the Outputlntent dictionary for PDF/X).

  • OutputConditionIdentifier
    Specifies the output condition identifier. When the URL of the ICC profile is specified, the default value is Custom.
  • OutputCondition
    Specifies the output condition (possible to omit).
  • RegistryName
    Specifies the URI of the registration agency of the output condition identifier. When OutputConditionIdentifier is specified and this is omitted, the default URI is http://www.color.org.
  • Info
    Specifies the added information (possible to omit).

It's also possible to give the information of the profile by describing the format of the fragment parameter following to the ICC profile. The base URI specified by axf:base-uri can also be specified.

<fo:declarations axf:base-uri="url('file:///C:/WINDOWS/system32/spool/drivers/color/')">
 <fo:color-profile src="url('Photoshop5DefaultCMYK.icc#Info=Photoshop5')"/>
</fo:declarations>

When the output intent is specified by the output condition identifier, the output intent is not embedded in PDF/X. When it is specified by the ICC profile, the ICC profile is embedded in PDF/X.

The standard output intent is the standard ICC profile defined below.

 CMYK Characterization Data

You can specify any of these for the output condition identifier. The standard output intents that can be specified with AH Formatter V7.1 are as follows and they are all for CMYK.

  • CGATS TR 001
  • CGATS TR 002
  • CGATS TR 003
  • CGATS TR 005
  • CGATS TR 006
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC1
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC2
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC3
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC4
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC5
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC6
  • CGATS21-2-CRPC7
  • FOGRA1
  • FOGRA2
  • FOGRA3
  • FOGRA4
  • FOGRA5
  • FOGRA6
  • FOGRA7
  • FOGRA8
  • FOGRA9
  • FOGRA11
  • FOGRA12
  • FOGRA13
  • FOGRA14
  • FOGRA15
  • FOGRA16
  • FOGRA17
  • FOGRA18
  • FOGRA19
  • FOGRA20
  • FOGRA21
  • FOGRA22
  • FOGRA23
  • FOGRA24
  • FOGRA25
  • FOGRA26
  • FOGRA27
  • FOGRA28
  • FOGRA29
  • FOGRA30
  • FOGRA31
  • FOGRA32
  • FOGRA33
  • FOGRA34
  • FOGRA35
  • FOGRA36
  • FOGRA37
  • FOGRA38
  • FOGRA39
  • FOGRA40
  • FOGRA41
  • FOGRA42
  • FOGRA43
  • FOGRA44
  • FOGRA45
  • FOGRA46
  • FOGRA47
  • FOGRA48
  • FOGRA49
  • FOGRA50
  • FOGRA51
  • FOGRA52
  • FOGRA53
  • FOGRA54
  • IFRA22
  • IFRA26
  • IFRA28
  • IFRA30
  • JCS2011
  • JC200103
  • JC200104
  • JCN2002
  • JCW2003
  • EUROSB104
  • EUROSB204

The ICC profile specified by the URL is judged whether it is the standard output intent from its contents. When the standard output intent is specified with a URL, with PDF/X-1 to 3, it's possible to select whether the ICC profile is embedded or not by embed-std-output-intent of the PDF Output Settings, because the embedding of the ICC profile is not required. However, with PDF/X-4, this setting is disregarded and the ICC profile is always embedded. With PDF/X-1 to 3, when specified by the output condition identifier, it's not embedded regardless of the setting of embed-std-output-intent.

When the output intent is not specified in FO, default-output-intent in the PDF Output Settings will be adopted.

The standard ICC profile can be downloaded from Adobe.

 Adobe ICC profiles

The profile that can be downloaded may be already bundled with Adobe Acrobat and has already been installed on your system. If your OS is Windows, search the %windir%\system32\spool\drivers\color directory.

PDF/A no-LT

PDF/A is defined by ISO 19005 and it is the specification intended to be suitable for long-term preservation of electronic documents. AH Formatter V7.1 is available for outputting the following version of PDF/A. It's impossible to output PDF/A with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

  • PDF/A-1a:2005
    It is the specification based on PDF1.4 that is fully compliant with ISO 19005-1:2005. It is guaranteed that PDF can be displayed and furthermore the text can be extracted in a logical order.
  • PDF/A-1b:2005
    It is the specification based on PDF1.4 that is partially compliant with ISO 19005-1:2005. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed.
  • PDF/A-2a:2011 no-LT
    It is the specification based on ISO 32000-1 that is fully compliant with ISO 19005-2:2011. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed and furthermore the text can be extracted in a logical order.
  • PDF/A-2b:2011 no-LT
    It is the specification based on ISO 32000-1 that is partially compliant with ISO 19005-2:2011. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed.
  • PDF/A-2u:2011 no-LT
    It is the specification based on ISO 32000-1 that is partially compliant with ISO 19005-2:2011. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed, and furthermore the Unicode value of text in PDF can be obtained.
  • PDF/A-3a:2012 no-LT
    It is that specification based on ISO 32000-1 that is fully compliant with ISO 19005-3:2012. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed and furthermore the text can be extracted in a logical order.
  • PDF/A-3b:2012 no-LT
    It is the specification based on ISO 32000-1 that is partially compliant with ISO 19005-3:2012. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed.
  • PDF/A-3u:2012 no-LT
    It is the specification based on ISO 32000-1 that is partially compliant with ISO 19005-3:2012. It is guaranteed that it can be displayed, and furthermore the Unicode value of text in PDF can be obtained.

The following shows the main features for PDF/A:

PDF/A-1aPDF/A-1bPDF/A-2aPDF/A-2bPDF/A-2uPDF/A-3aPDF/A-3bPDF/A-3u
All fonts must be embeddedyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
ICC profiles must be embedded yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
Files must be taggedyesnoyesnonoyesnono
Files must include XMP compliant metadatayesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
Files may include encryptionnononononononono
Files may include LZW Compressionnononononononono
Files may include Transparent imagesnonoyesyesyesyesyesyes
Files may refer to the external contentnononononononono
Files may include JavaScriptnononononononono
Unicode must be used for text yesnoyesnoyesyesnoyes
Files may attach PDF/A as annotations nonoyesyesyesyesyesyes
Files may attach any files other than PDF/A as annotations nononononoyesyesyes

PDF/A as well as PDF/X require that all fonts are embedded; if a font cannot be embedded due to security restrictions or other issues, a PDF/A or PDF/X will not be generated. Also, the embedding of the ICC profile is required with PDF/A, so when specifying the output intent, only the URL specification of the ICC profile is effective.

Most information (including embedding of fonts etc.) is adopted precisely and user settings are ignored. In PDF/A-1a or PDF/A-2a or PDF/A-3a, the tagging is done compulsorily. See also Tagged PDF.

XMP metadata is automatically generated from the document information of PDF. The original XMP can also be specified by <axf:document-info name="xmp">.

In order to attach a file as an annotation, use axf:annotation-file-attachment. Although it is [yes] in the above table, there are the following restrictions when attaching a file to PDF/A. There are no restrictions other than PDF/A.

  • Any files cannot be attached to PDF/A-1 as annotations.
  • Only PDF/A-1 or PDF/A-2 files can be attached to PDF/A-2 as annotations. At that time, the version of PDF to be attached must be less than or equal to the version of PDF to output.
  • Any files including PDF/A can be attached to PDF/A-3 as annotations.

Since fonts cannot be embedded in forms in PDF, PDF/A cannot be generated. However, only in the following cases, PDF/A can be generated even if there is a form.

PDF/UA no-LT

PDF/UA is defined by ISO 14289-1 and is the specification intended for improving the accessibility of PDF based on the ISO 32000-1 specification. AH Formatter V7.1 is available for outputting the following version of PDF/UA. It's impossible to output PDF/UA with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

  • PDF/UA-1:2014 (ISO 14289-1:2014)

The following shows the main features of PDF/UA.

  • Contents must be tagged in logical reading order.
  • Meaningful graphics, annotations and numerical formulas must include alternate text descriptions. See Alternate descriptions are provided.
  • Security settings must allow assistive technology access to the content.
  • Recommended to include bookmarks.
  • Annotations, links and multimedia may be included.
  • The language of the document must be specified.
  • All fonts must be embedded.

Tagged PDF no-LT

Usual PDF does not have the document structure in the contents. For example, the sentences are cut off per each line. In the column, the first line of the right column follows the first line of the left column. Therefore, even if a person with sight problems, etc. is going to read PDF using some kind of reader, it is very difficult to read a text in the right order. The same thing is applied to the text extraction from PDF. Tagged PDF is effective with PDF1.4 or later.

Tagged PDF adds structure to PDF documents by embedding tags into the PDF. The structure added to the document makes the information in the PDF more reusable. For this reason, Tagged PDF is required to create accessible PDF documents. See also the following to know more about Tagged PDF specifications.

  • ISO 32000-1:2008 14.8 Tagged PDF
  • ISO 32000-2:2017 14.8 Tagged PDF

Tagged PDF is an important element of PDF accessibility. For accessible PDF, there are some requirements in addition to tagged PDF, as a whole, it is defined in PDF/UA.

AH Formatter V7.1 embeds the following tags (StructElem) for each FO element. Note that FO elements assigned to regions other than region-body are tagged as Artifact.

FO elementPDF elementComment
fo:rootDocument
fo:page-sequencePart
fo:flowSect or Div Div when PDF2.0 or later
fo:static-contentSect or Aside Aside when PDF2.0 or later
fo:blockP or DivP when it has the content of inline-level, otherwise Div
fo:block-containerDiv or Sect, AsideSect when absolute-position="fixed" or "absolute", otherwise Div. In PDF2.0 or later, it will be Aside instead of Sect.
fo:inlineSpan or Reference Reference when the child of <fo:footnote>, otherwise Span. In PDF2.0 or later, the child of <fo:footnote> is also Span.
fo:inline-containerSpan
fo:leaderSpan
fo:page-numberSpan
fo:page-number-citationSpan
fo:page-number-citation-lastSpan
fo:scaling-value-citationSpan
fo:index-page-citation-listSpan
fo:bidi-overrideSpan
fo:footnoteThe footnote-reference-area embeds Sect that contains all the footnotes on the page. In PDF2.0 or later, Aside is embedded.
fo:footnote-bodyNote or FENote
fo:floatSect or Aside
fo:external-graphicFigure or FormulaFormula in case of MathML, otherwise Figure
fo:instream-foreign-objectFigure or FormulaFormula in case of MathML, otherwise Figure
fo:basic-linkLink
fo:list-blockL
fo:list-itemLI
fo:list-item-labelLbl
fo:list-item-bodyLBody
fo:tableTable
fo:table-captionCaption
fo:table-headerTHead
fo:table-footerTFoot
fo:table-bodyTBody
fo:table-rowTR
fo:table-cellTH or TD TH within <fo:table-header>, otherwise TD
axf:form-fieldForm
axf:rubyRuby
axf:ruby-baseRB
axf:ruby-textRT

AH Formatter V7.1 embeds the following tags (StructElem) for each HTML element.

HTML elementPDF elementComment
htmlDocument
divDiv
h1H1
h2H2
h3H3
h4H4
h5H5
h6H6
pP
ulL
olL
liLI
li::markerLbllist label
dlL
dtLbl
ddLBody
blockquoteBlockQuote or P P when PDF2.0 or later
captionCaption
tableTable
trTR
tdTD
thTH
theadTHead
tfootTFoot
tbodyTBody
rubyRuby
rbRB
rtRT
spanSpan
imgFigure
a[href]Link
sectionSect or Part Part when PDF2.0 or later
articleArt or ASide ASide when PDF2.0 or later
codeCode or P P when PDF2.0 or later
other block elementsDiv
other inline elementsSpan

There are some tags that are not structural elements.

PDF elementComment
ArtifactIt is mapped to the contents distinguished from the text of a page. <fo:static-content> that is repeatedly outputted at each page break, and <fo:table-header> (except the one at the beginning of the table) and <fo:table-footer> (except the one at the end of the table) serve as Artifact. The same applies when axf:pdftag="Artifact" is specified.
ReversedCharsIt is mapped to the text which runs from right to left, such as Arabic, etc.
SpanIt is used for setting up the character string before being processed for the display as ActualText. It is different from Span in the structural element. The character strings before being processed mean the character string before the hyphenation is processed, or the character string before complicated glyph substitution is done in Thai etc., for example.

In order to create Tagged PDF, you can check Tagged PDF in the PDF Option Setting Dialog, or you can specify -tpdf with the Command-line Interface.

Using the axf:pdftag extension property, you can specify an arbitrary tag name to PDF.

In AH Formatter V7.1, Role Map can be specified. Role Map is a feature to set the alias of the tag element name. In AH Formatter V7.1, tag-role-map in the Option Setting File enables highly readable tagging while conforming to standard tags.

AH Formatter V7.1 processes as follows for each check item (in the case of Acrobat 7.0) of the Adobe Acrobat's Accessibility Full Check.

  • Alternate descriptions are provided

    Alternate text can be specified with the extension property, axf:alttext.

    <fo:external-graphic src="..." axf:alttext="AltText"/>
    

    If axf:alttext is not specified or is empty, the content of text is treated as an alternate text. However, for empty elements such as <fo:external-graphic>, the content of text is empty. If the content of text is empty and HTML, the value of the title property is treated as an alternate text. If the value of the title property is also empty or not HTML, the value of the role property is treated as an alternate text. However, this is not recommended as it is not the original usage of the role property. If the value of the role property is also empty, one white-space character (U+0020) is treated as an alternate text. This prevents an accessibility checker from generating an error when alternate text is not provided on, for example, an unimportant image. It is the FO/HTML creator's responsibility to provide meaningful alternate text.

    In order to check whether an alternate text is given to the image, you can choose View in the Navigation Tabs, then click Tags to open the Tags tab with Acrobat, then see the alternate text item by opening the property of the <Figure> element.

    The alternate text of the link can be specified with the extension property axf:annotation-contents. If axf:annotation-contents is not specified or is empty, axf:alttext will be used as an alternate text. When axf:alttext is not specified or is empty, it is processed in the same way as the alternate text of the image.

  • Text language is specified

    If any of the properties for specifying the language (language, country, xml:lang) are provided in the FO, they will be used to set the language of the corresponding structure elements in the Tagged PDF. For example, if you display the tags of the following Tagged PDF with Acrobat,

    <fo:block language="ja">日本語です</fo:block>

    and view the properties of the <P> element in this paragraph, you will see the language as Japanese.

  • Reliable character encoding is provided

    The text is outputted in Unicode, there is no problem.

  • All content is contained in the document structure

    See the tags in the above table.

  • All form fields have descriptions

    If the axf:field-description extension property is specified, the text will be assigned, if not, the form name is assigned.

  • List and table structure is correct

    <fo:list-block> is for the list structure of Tagged PDF and <fo:table> is for the table structure.

  • The tag order matches to the order of the logical structure

    AH Formatter V7.1 outputs tags in the right order.

See also PDF Embedding to know more about embedding tagged PDF in tagged PDF or the restrictions by the PDF versions.

It's impossible to output Tagged PDF with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

Linearized PDF no-LT

A linearized PDF file makes viewing of the generated PDF on the web faster. Features of linearized PDF include the following:

  • When opening a PDF, the first page can be opened as fast as possible.
  • When a user requests another page from an opened page, the page can be opened as fast as possible.
  • When distributing a document using a slow communication line, make it possible to display pages gradually one by one.
  • When tracing a link, it is not necessary to receive and display all the pages.

PDF that is optimized for fast web view indicates this linearized PDF.

XMP

XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform) is an XML specification that represents metadata, and is defined in ISO 16684. PDF1.4 or later contains XMP. XMP is generated from the information specified in <axf:document-info>. Any XMP can be specified with <axf:document-info xmp>, but its contents are adjusted so that there is no conflict. The following contents are adjusted:

  • For PDF/X, PDF/A, and PDF/UA, meta information corresponding to each is added. The conflicting information in the specified XMP is deleted.
  • For <pdf:Producer> and <xmp:CreatorTool>, those of AH Formatter V7.1 are set.
  • For <xmp:CreateDate>, <xmp:ModifyDate> and <xmp:MetadataDate>, PDF generation date and time are set.
  • For <dc:format>, application/pdf is set.
  • If <axf:document-info document-title> is specified, it is set to <dc:title>. If <dc:title> is not included in the specified XMP and also <axf:document-info document-title> is not specified, an appropriate title is set in PDF/X.
  • If <axf:document-info subject> is specified, it is set to <dc:description>.
  • If <axf:document-info author> is specified, it is set to <dc:creator>.
  • If <axf:document-info author-title> is specified, it is set to <photoshop:AuthorsPosition>.
  • If <axf:document-info description-writer> is specified, it is set to <photoshop:CaptionWriter>.
  • If <axf:document-info keywords> is specified, it is set to <pdf:Keywords>.
  • If <axf:document-info copyright-notice> is specified, it is set to <dc:rights>.
  • If <axf:document-info copyright-info-url> is specified, it is set to <xmpRights:WebStatement>.
  • If <axf:document-info copyright-status> is specified to something other than Unknown, it is set to <xmpRights:Marked>.
  • In PDF/X, when <xmpMM:DocumentID> is not included in the specified XMP, an appropriate UUID is added.
  • In PDF/X, when <xmpMM:VersionID> is not included in the specified XMP, it is added as 1.
  • In PDF/X, when <xmpMM:RenditionClass> is not included in the specified XMP, it is added as “default”.
  • For other than PDF/A, add the custom property.

Namespaces that appear here are:

  • xmp : http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/
  • xmpMM : http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/mm/
  • dc : http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
  • pdf : http://ns.adobe.com/pdf/1.3/
  • photoshop : http://ns.adobe.com/photoshop/1.0/

No other adjustments other than above are made. Even if an element of an unknown namespace is included in the specified XMP, it will not be deleted. If such elements are included in PDF/A, etc., compliance violations may occur.

PDF Embedding

Possible to embed PDF document in the other PDF. Fillable PDF forms can also be embedded.

It is performed by using <fo:external-graphic> like handling an image. See Graphics.

<fo:external-graphic src="embedded.pdf#page=3"/>

As described above, specify the page number which you want to embed to the URI. Specify the page in the form of #page=​<FirstPage>-​<LastPage>. When there is no page number specified, the first page will be embedded.

embedded.pdf#page=3-5
from 3rd page to 5th page
embedded.pdf#page=3-
from 3rd page to the last page
embedded.pdf#page=3
3rd page only
embedded.pdf
first page only

When there is no size specified, it's embedded in the page size of the PDF where it's embedded. However if you want to scale the size, content-width or content-height can be specified as follows:

<fo:external-graphic src="embedded.pdf#page=3" content-width="50%"/>

Possible to embed multiple pages continuously.

<fo:external-graphic src="embedded.pdf#page=3-5"/>

As described above, embed from the 3rd page to 5th page continuously. If you want to embed all pages, specify as follows:

<fo:external-graphic src="embedded.pdf#page=1-"/>

When specifying PDF by utilizing the data scheme (RFC2397), the page number can be specified as the parameter of the media type as follows:

<fo:external-graphic src="data:application/pdf;page=3;base64,JVBERi0xLjQKJeLjz9M..."/>

Moreover, it's also possible to embed PDF as a background. This can be used when making a list form as a background and formatting only the content data on it. When specifying PDF as a background, specify axf:background-repeat="no-repeat" to <fo:simple-page-master> or <fo:page-sequence> as follows:

<fo:simple-page-master axf:background-image="background.pdf"
                       axf:background-repeat="no-repeat" ...

axf:background-repeat="repeat" cannot be specified. In CSS, specify the background to @page.

When embedding PDF against the background, it's possible to embed not only one page but also two or more pages continuously. Specify axf:background-repeat="paginate" as follows:

<fo:simple-page-master axf:background-image="background.pdf#page=3-5"
                       axf:background-repeat="paginate" ...

In this example, pages from the 3rd to the 5th are embedded as the background. When the number of pages generated from the contents of <fo:flow> is less than the number of embedded PDF pages, pages are added so that all pages of embedded PDF may be outputted. Therefore, if the contents of <fo:flow> is empty, there would be no problem. When there is more number of pages generated from the contents of <fo:flow>, the background image of the page beyond the number of embedded PDF pages will drop off. Specify the page in the form of #page=​<FirstPage>-​<LastPage>. When axf:background-repeat="paginate" is not specified, the -<LastPage> portion is disregarded.

background.pdf#page=3-5
from 3rd page to 5th page
background.pdf#page=3-
from 3rd page to the last page
background.pdf#page=3
3rd page only
background.pdf
all pages

When axf:background-image or axf:background-repeat are specified to both <fo:page-sequence> and <fo:simple-page-master>, <fo:simple-page-master> takes priority. It's possible to embed PDF to <fo:region-*> by specifying to <fo:simple-page-master>.

axf:background-repeat="paginate" is not available to specify with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

The version of embedded PDF must be less than or equal to the version of PDF to output. The following table shows the acceptable combination with PDF/X, etc. Combinations not in the table are not acceptable.

  • [yes] means that the embedding is possible.
Embedded PDF PDF​1.3 to 1.7PDF​2.0PDF/X
1a:​20013:​20021a:​20032:​20033:​20034:​20104p:​2010
Output PDFPDF1.3 to 1.7yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
PDF2.0yes
PDF/X​-1a:​2001yes
PDF/X-3:​2002yesyes
PDF/X-1a:​2003yesyes
PDF/X-2:​2003yesyesyesyesyes
PDF/X-3:​2003yesyesyesyes
PDF/X-4:​2010yesyesyesyesyesyes
PDF/X-4p:​2010yesyesyesyesyesyes
Embedded PDF PDF/APDF/UA
1a:​20051b:​20052a:​20112b:​20112u:​20113a:​20123b:​20123u:​20121:​2014
Output PDFPDF1.3 to 1.7yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
PDF/A​-1a:​2005
PDF/A​-1b:​2005yesyes
PDF/A​-2a:​2011
PDF/A​-2b:​2011yesyesyesyesyes
PDF/A​-2u:​2011yesyesyes
PDF/A​-3a:​2012
PDF/A​-3b:​2012yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
PDF/A​-3u:​2012yesyesyesyesyes
PDF/UA​-1:​2014

Even if it is [yes] in the above table when embedding PDF, there are the following restrictions:

  • An error will occur if the PDF version to be embedded is larger than the PDF version to be output.
  • When there is no compatibility in OutputIntent, an error will occur when embedding PDF/A into PDF/A.
  • Bookmarks contained in the embedded PDF are disregarded.
  • The type of annotations to be embedded, contained in the embedded PDF can be specified by import-annotation-types in PDF Output Settings. You can also specify it in Others page in the PDF Option Setting Dialog in GUI. Unspecified annotations are disregarded.
  • ID in the embedded PDF specified by internal-destination etc., are deleted.
  • When FitH, FitV, etc. are specified by axf:destination-type as an internal link of the embedded PDF, the display is scaled to the paper width of the import destination.
  • Images in the embedded PDF are not eligible for the image processing (Compression or Color Conversion)
  • In order to embed tagged PDF in tagged PDF, specify import-tagged-pdf="true" in PDF Output Settings. You can also specify it in the Version page in the PDF Option Setting Dialog in GUI. PDF without tags is always embeddable.
  • Even if OutputIntent is specified for the PDF page to be embedded, it is ignored.
  • If map location information is attached to the embedded PDF image, AH Formatter V7.1 places the image in Form XObject, so map location information may not be displayed depending on the PDF viewer.

Font Output

Type 1 fonts (including Adobe Standard 14 Fonts), TrueType fonts (including OpenType fonts with TrueType Outlines), OpenType fonts (PostScript Outline), WOFF (Web Open Font Format), WOFF2 and Macintosh TrueType font data fork suitcase are supported for PDF output. Other font formats are not supported. For more details, see the “Fonts”.

AH Formatter V7.1 requires that the fonts, which are specified in documents, are installed on your system in order to use them correctly. See Windows help or follow the installation instructions attached to the fonts for the method of installing the font in the Windows version. The font placed aside from the font folder can be outputted to PDF in the Windows version. At this time, you need to specify some setting in the Font Configuration File.

Character Sets, Encoding

The following character sets are supported:

  • Adobe Standard Latin character set
  • Symbol character set
  • ZapfDingbats character set
  • Japanese character set (Adobe-Japan1-Supplement2)
  • Simplified Chinese character set (Adobe-GB1-Supplement2)
  • Traditional Chinese character set (Adobe-CNS1-Supplement0)
  • Korean character set (Adobe-Korea1-Supplement1)

Encoding of all characters is processed as Unicode within AH Formatter V7.1. In the case of Chinese, Japanese, Korean (CJK), AH Formatter V7.1 maps the Unicode to glyph in each CJK character sets by using the following CMap:

  • Japanese : UniJIS-UCS2-H(V) UniJIS-UCS2-HW-H(V)
  • Simplified Chinese : UniGB-UCS2-H(V)
  • Traditional Chinese : UniCNS-UCS2-H(V)
  • Korean : UniKS-UCS2-H(V)

The characters that do not belong to the above character sets are embedded in the PDF by getting the glyphs from the font files. This process is done only for TrueType, OpenType fonts.

Font Embedding

Embedding font makes it possible to display PDF files even in the environment where there are no fonts.

In the default setting of TrueType font processing, only the outline of glyphs that are not defined by CMap is embedded. In cases where embedding TrueType fonts are prohibited by a font vendor, error occurs and processing stops. This error can be avoided by replacing it with a white space and output PDF. You can also specify the option that all glyphs of a font are to be embedded whether the character is defined by CMap or not.

In the default setting of Type 1 font processing, only the outline of a font that has font specific encoding is embedded. The option to embed all glyphs of a font can also be specified whether the font has standard or font specific encoding.

You cannot embed the font in PDF if the font is not allowed to embed. See also PDF Output Settings to learn how to specify the font you want to embed.

Regardless of the setting, there may be a case that a font may always be embedded. In the following cases, the font is always embedded. If the font is not allowed to embed, you cannot use the font.

  • Fonts for the following scripts
    • Ethi : Etiopic no-LT
    • Arab : Arabic
    • Syrc : Syriac no-LT
    • Hebr : Hebrew
    • Deva : Devalagari
    • Beng : Bengali no-LT
    • Guru : Gurmukhi no-LT
    • Gujr : Gujarati no-LT
    • Orya : Oriya no-LT
    • Taml : Tamil no-LT
    • Telu : Telugu no-LT
    • Knda : Kannada no-LT
    • Mlym : Malayalam no-LT
    • Sinh : Sinhala no-LT
    • Thai : Thai
    • Khmr : Khmer no-LT
    • Laoo : Lao no-LT
    • Mymr : Myanmar no-LT
  • Ligatured form  axf:ligature-mode
  • The glyph of modified by font-variant (except for an emulation of small-caps)
  • Characters that are transformed into Variation Sequence
  • The Unicode characters which cannot be expressed by 16-bit

Image Output

For more information about supported graphic images, see the “Graphics”.

Vector Images

The following vector images outputted to PDF as vector primitives are replaced with PDF operators:

In Windows version, vector images other than the above are transformed into the raster images and outputted to PDF. The resolution of the raster can be set in the result PDF with the value of dpi. See rasterize-resolution in PDF Output Settings. In non-Windows versions, the vector image which cannot be outputted to PDF is disregarded.

For details, see EPS in Graphics.

Raster Images

Generally the raster graphic data is compressed using a compression algorithms in the graphic file. If the compression method and the original (uncompressed) image format are both compatible with the PDF file format, the compressed raster graphic data will be directly embedded into the PDF file. If the compression method or original image format are not compatible with the PDF format, the graphic data will be uncompressed and converted to a PDF compatible bitmap format for output. If graphic data cannot be uncompressed, its data cannot be processed. Bitmap graphic will be compressed using JPEG or ZLIB compression and embedded into the PDF file. See color-compression, color-jpeg-quality attributes in PDF Output Settings of the Option Setting File. If raster image data is directly embedded into the PDF file, these attributes will not be applied.

The raster images which can be embedded directly in a PDF are as follows:

These are the following restrictions:

  • Progressive JPEG, Interlaced GIF are transformed into regular JPEG or GIF images.
  • 16-bit color in PNG or TIFF is reduced to 8-bit color.
  • When alpha channel is attached to PNG or TIFF, it is divided.
  • There are some unsupported TIFF formats.
  • JPEG 2000 is embedded into PDF only when it is PDF1.5 or later. For other versions, it is embedded after being converted to JPEG etc.

Down sampling

In AH Formatter V7.1, the down sampling of the raster images embedded in PDF can be down sampled.

How it's down sampled can be specified in Compression in the PDF Option Setting Dialog or in Option Seting File.

The compression has the following restrictions:

JPEG compression is available when the following criteria are met; if not, ZLIB compression is used.

  • BitsPerComponent is 8.
  • The color space is any of CMYK, RGB, grayscale or CIE L*a*b*.

JPEG 2000 compression is available when the following criteria are met; if not, JPEG compression is used.

  • PDF version is PDF1.5 or later.
  • BitsPerComponent is 8.
  • The color space is any of RGB, grayscale or CIE L*a*b*.

Multimedia no-LT

The multimedia data, such as video, audio, etc. can be embedded or linked in PDF. The following shows the example using <fo:external-graphic>.

<fo:external-graphic src="video.mpg" content-type="video/mpeg"
                     axf:multimedia-treatment="embed"
                     axf:poster-image="poster.jpg"
                     axf:show-controls="true"
                     width="640pt" height="400pt"/>

In HTML, <object> or <video> can be used.

<object data="video.mpg" type="video/mpeg"
        width="640" height="400"
        style="-ah-poster-image:url('poster.jpg'); -ah-show-controls:true">
</object>

or

<video src="video.mpg" type="video/mpeg"
       width="640" height="400"
       poster="poster.jpg" controls="controls">
</video>

The setting of content-type (or type attribute in HTML) is required. AH Formatter V7.1 assumes that the data specified as src follows the content-type. The contents of data are not checked. A poster image can be specified by axf:poster-image (or poster attribute in HTML <video>). A poster image can be displayed in the GUI. When width and height are not set, the size of the reference area is assumed. Whether to embed or link multimedia can be specified with axf:multimedia-treatment.

When axf:show-controls (or controls attribute in HTML <video>) is specified, a control bar is shown under the playing multimedia object. To prevent overlapping the control bar with another object, it is necessary to make enough space below the multimedia object.

The following shows the content types accepted as multimedia by default:

  • audio/*
  • video/*
  • application/x-shockwave-flash

The additional content types other than these can be added by <multimedia> in the Option Setting File. The following example shows a combination of typical extensions and content types.

Extension Content type
*.3g2 video/x-msvideo
*.3gp video/x-msvideo
*.aac audio/basic
*.aiffaudio/x-aiff
*.asf video/x-ms-asf
*.au audio/basic
*.avi video/x-ms-wm
*.dv video/x-dv
*.f4v video/mp4
*.flv video/x-msvideo
*.ivf video/x-ivf
*.m1v video/x-mpeg
*.m2v video/x-mpeg
*.m4a audio/mp4
*.m4b audio/x-m4b
*.m4v video/mp4
*.mid audio/x-midi
*.midi
*.mov video/quicktime
*.mp2 audio/x-mpeg
*.mp3 audio/x-mp3
*.mp4 video/mp4
*.mpe video/mpeg
*.mpeg
*.mpg
*.qt video/quicktime
*.swf application/x-shockwave-flash
*.wav audio/x-wav
*.wma audio/x-ms-wma
*.wmv audio/x-ms-wmv
*.wmx audio/x-ms-wmx

Whether these can be replayed correctly depends on the PDF viewer. When the shortage of players or shortage of codecs error occurs when replaying, it may be available to run again by introducing a corresponding player and codec.

Restrictions

  • Effective with PDF1.5 or later. PDF/X, PDF/A are excluded.
  • Cannot specify to background-image.
  • Cannot specify to axf:poster-image.
  • This feature is not effective with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

Rich media no-LT

The multimedia can be embedded as a rich media annotation (here we call such multimedia simply as the rich media). It does not require external players etc. for playback. Specify that it is rich media by axf:multimedia-treatment in <fo:external-graphic> as follows: In HTML, specify it by <object> or <video>. Also, there are differences in valid properties. For more details, see Images, Multimedia.

<fo:external-graphic src="video.mpg" content-type="video/mpeg"
                     axf:multimedia-treatment="richmedia"
                     axf:poster-image="poster.jpg"
                     width="640pt" height="400pt"/>

The following multimedia can be embedded as the rich media.

Extension Content type
*.3g2 video/x-msvideo
*.3gp video/x-msvideo
*.f4v video/mp4
*.flv video/x-msvideo
*.m4v video/mp4
*.mov video/quicktime
*.mp3 audio/x-mp3
*.mp4 video/mp4
*.swf application/x-shockwave-flash

Even though the container format is supported the video and audio codecs need to be compatible with Adobe Acrobat's flash player in order to play correctly.

Restrictions

  • Effective with PDF1.7 or later. PDF/X, PDF/A are excluded.
  • Cannot specify to background-image.
  • Cannot specify to axf:poster-image.
  • This feature is not effective with AH Formatter V7.1 Lite.

Miscellaneous

  • In AH Formatter V7.1, when the language is specified in the root element of <fo:root> or <html>, it is outputted as a language information on PDF. When the language is not specified, if default-lang is specified to the Option Setting File, it is outputted as a language information on PDF.

  • With AH Formatter V7.1, High Compression Settings can be set to reduce the size of the output PDF file. The High Compression Settings can be set in Compression in PDF Option Setting Dialog in GUI. Note that the image quality will also be lowered according to the reduced PDF size. Setting values to be applied can be specified in color-compression-minimum, grayscale-compression-minimum and monochrome-compression-minimum, etc. in the Option Setting File. no-LT

    In the High Compression Settings, default values are set as below:

    <pdf-settings
        color-compression="auto2k"
        color-jpeg-quality="40"
        color-downsampling="bicubic"
        color-downsampling-target-dpi="150"
        color-downsampling-above-dpi="225"
        grayscale-compression="auto2k"
        grayscale-jpeg-quality="40"
        grayscale-downsampling="bicubic"
        grayscale-downsampling-target-dpi="150"
        grayscale-downsampling-above-dpi="225"
        monochrome-compression="zlib"
        monochrome-downsampling="bicubic"
        monochrome-downsampling-target-dpi="300"
        monochrome-downsampling-above-dpi="450"
        pass-through="none"/>
    

    Compression results may vary depending on the factor such as a type, format, color space and compression ratio of the original image. The size may also be smaller if pass-through="all" is specified.